Taking into account the conclusions and recommendations in the Final Report of the International Commission on the Holocaust in Romania (Wiesel Commission),1
Having regard to the imperatives contained in the Government Emergency Ordinance no. 31/2002, approved by Law no. 107/2006, as amended and supplemented,
Observing the status and quality of indigenous and international educational programs and research in the field,
Facing the crucial fact that lack of education, research and dissemination of its results lead to the decrease of awareness regarding and the proliferation of: anti-Semitic and xenophobic phenomena, manifestations of ethnic, religious and racial intolerance, denial, relativization or trivialization of the Holocaust as well as of competitive marthyrology and competitive memory, among the new generations, and also
Starting from the reality of loopholes of high-school and university education in this field, and specifically noting that universities in Romania do not have institutes or programs with the primary aim of promoting education and academic research on the Holocaust and other genocides, the Council of the College of Political, Administrative and Communication Sciences of the Babeş-Bolyai University, met in regular session on 26.09.2014,
of an institute specialized in Holocaust and genocide studies within the College of Political, Administrative and Communication Sciences of the Babeş‒Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca.
1. The name of the Institute in Romanian will be:
Institutul pentru Studii de Holocaust şi Genocid,
which together with its Hungarian, German and English names, respectively,
Holokauszt- és Genocídiumtanulmányok Intézete (Hungarian)
Institut für Holocaust- und Genozidstudien (German)
Institute for Holocaust and Genocide Studies (English)
are constituting the official name of the institute.
2. The headquarters of the Institute is identical to that of the College of Political, Administrative and Communication Sciences, namely: Str. Teodor Moşoiu no. 71, 400132 Cluj-Napoca.
3. Purpose of the Institute
The Purpose of the Institute is the education and research in the field of the Holocaust and genocides. In this regard, the Institute will consider:
– The development and introduction of courses on the Holocaust, genocide studies, studies of denial in all its forms of expression (e.g. distortion, trivialization, minimization, relativization, inversion, aso.) etc. that will address mainly students of political science, public administration, journalism and communication departments of the College of Political, Administrative and Communication Sciences, with total openness to bachelor, master and doctoral students from other majors and colleges of the university and other universities in the country and abroad, and will aim to familiarize them with these topics and raise their awareness by filling knowledge gaps accumulated during the years of pre-university training, including inter- and multidisciplinary courses (e.g. with literary, art, film or sociological representation topics)
– The initiation of courses, seminars and conferences for opinion leaders (journalists, political scientists, sociologists, social workers, etc.) and scientific and cultural personalities from across the country, as well as the development of adequate training programs and raising their awareness on Holocaust and genocide related issues,
– The initiation of independent research programs or in cooperation with institutions and organizations in the country and abroad that have similar concerns, research which will not focus on the reproduction of results already achieved, but rather on filling the gaps in the current research state on the Holocaust and genocide (e.g. through special attention accorded to the Holocaust in South-Eastern Europe and regions of the former Soviet Union, where the Hungarian and Romanian governments and military forces of the time played an important role, etc.), attracting in its educational and research programs mainly the bachelor, master and doctoral students, but also staff members of the College and of Babeş‒Bolyai University.
4. Leadership of the Institute
The Institute for Holocaust and Genocide Studies is run and managed by a Board of Directors; this board will decide on the annual budget of revenues and expenditures, approve educational and research projects, issues related to the staff of the institute and will oversee the use of heritage, archives and collections owned by the Institute.
Leading figures in the country and abroad with extensive activity in areas of specific expertise will be invited to join the Scientific Council of the Institute. The Scientific Council will design the main directions of education and research and put forward criticisms of educational and research activities whenever needed.
5. Archives and collections of the Institute
The Institute for Holocaust and Genocide Studies will be able to build up its own archive of documents and manuscripts, as well as its library and collection of objects and artifacts related to its field of activity. These archives and collections may be physically located in a separate enclosure owned by the institute, but legally will be part of the heritage of the faculty or university library.
The College of Political, Administrative and Communication Sciences commits towards the potential donors and testators to keep in the best condition and transmit to future generations both archive-, library-, and other collections of the Institute and to support their development and future processing.
To achieve these goals as well as for the purpose of fruitful cooperation with similar institutions, the Institute will share archival material and other resources for education and research with other institutions working in the field of Holocaust and genocide studies.
The archives, libraries and collections of the Institute are public, except materials which donors or their testators decided to restrict from public consultation.
6. Incomes and expenditures of the Institute shall be provided in its budget, which will be produced annually.
Revenues of the Institute will come from the following sources:
Expenses incurred by the Institute will be for educational and research activities, including expenses stemming from the use of space and other facilities, personnel, travels, as well as materials and services necessary for proper functioning.
Institutions and individuals can make donations to the institute for general purpose, to achieve its objectives and also for dedicated purposes, for specific objectives, mutually agreed upon by the donor and the donee.
The Institute will be able to name certain funds and programs after the donors concerned and with their consent. The Institute will publish the names of institutional and private donors, with their consent, and will grant awards of the largest donors.
7. Considerations and basic principles of the mission of the Institute
The Institute for Holocaust and Genocide Studies is based on the idea that the genocides that history has known usually did not appear out of nowhere or by exclusive control of those in power, but due to the fact that feelings of hatred and exclusion towards certain groups of people had deeply penetrated important parts of the society. The basic reason of genocides was primordially the fact that some minorities were considered obstacles or barriers to the achievement of the vision and / or future projects of the majority societies.
In this framework, the Holocaust is a genocide of unprecedented nature, international in scope and global in intent, designed and carried out from the design phase to the execution by the institutions of the states concerned. The Holocaust was the state-organized, systematic persecution and extermination of European Jewry by Nazi Germany and its collaborator allies between 1933 and 1945. Not only Jews were persecuted and killed during this period. Persecution and mass arrests took place against other ethnic groups such as Sinti and Roma, people with disabilities, political opponents, homosexuals and other target groups identified as groups of “different” people, labeled as “others” and excluded from the protection afforded to members of society.2
Having in view the territory of today's Romania, but also the territories under Romanian or Hungarian administration during the Second World War, the primary responsibility for the planning and implementation of the Holocaust bears on:
On the territories described above, the number of victims that are falling into the responsibility of Romania amounts to 280-380 thousand,3 and those that are the responsibility of Hungary amount to 150-160 thousand victims.4 The total number of Jews killed, originating from the territory of today's Romania amounts to 405-515 thousand, plus a number of approx. 11 thousand victims of the Roma and Sinti communities (of about 25,000 deported to Transnistria).
Destruction of the Jewish Community in Romania
A significant proportion of the Jewish community of Romania was destroyed during the Second World War. The Jews of Bessarabia, Bukovina and Dorohoi were subjected to systematic killing and deportation. Transnistria, part of occupied Ukraine under Romanian administration, was used as a giant territory for killing Jews. Romanian authorities organized pogroms and other act of mass violence in the Old Romanian Kingdom, the most studied being those in Bucharest, Iaşi, Galaţi, etc. Romanian authorities also considered the mass deportation to Nazi extermination camps in occupied Poland (Belzec) of all Jews from the Old Kingdom, which plan fortunately remained unrealized, but research of which is also important.
Romanian authorities bear the main responsibility for both the planning and the implementation of the Holocaust in Romania. This includes:
Jews were subjected to degradation simply because they were Jews; consequently they lost state protection and became victims. Some of the Roma population in Romania was also subject to deportation and killed in Transnistria.5
Destruction of the Jewish communities of Northern Transylvania
Four-fifths of the approx. 165,000 Jews who lived in Northern Transylvania (annexed by Hungary on August 30, 1940) were the victims of the Holocaust in Hungary. Their death is the responsibility of the Hungarian authorities of the time. Miklós Horthy's autocratic regime was one of an extremely powerful anti-Semitism and nationalism. As early as the 1930s, the propaganda of this regime created the premises of the destruction of the Hungarian Jewish communities, including those of Northern Transylvania.
Extermination of the Jews of Northern Transylvania was done in several steps, including:
A large part of the Jews of Northern Transylvania who took refuge in Budapest before the mass deportations of the 1944 spring, shared the fate of the Jews of Budapest: ending up in different ghettos, various death marches, or being exterminated by the Horthy regime and later by the Szálasi (or Nyilas) regimes.
Given these facts, the Institute for Holocaust and Genocide Studies clearly delineates the study and research of the Holocaust – considered a special, unique genocide of the human history, the repetition of which the Institute, through its efforts, endeavors to avoid– from the study and research of various other genocides that mankind has known and knows nowadays, and against the production and proliferation of which the institute also takes a firm position.
At the same time, the Institute will be involved in the research and study of the Holocaust occurred in other European countries, as well as in the study and research of other genocides that took place in Europe or on other continents. Special attention will be given to the study, research, analysis and documentation of European local and regional genocides of the 20th century (e.g. genocide committed by Turkey against Armenians; Gulag phenomenon in communist countries; mass killings for ethnic cleansing purposes from the former Yugoslavia and other).
8. Core programs of the Institute
A. Educational programs of the Institute will focus on the following themes:
B. Research programs of the Institute will be complementary and not duplicative to other institutions in the country and abroad, trying to fill gaps in current knowledge about the Holocaust and genocide and will focus on the following main areas:
C. Programs dissemination of research results
The Institute will work to disseminate the results obtained from research programs by publishing a series of books and an e-mail newsletter and will eventually publish a scientific journal of its own, or will work towards a partnership with the “Elie Wiesel” National Institute for the Study of the Holocaust in Romania and other universities in the country to further develop the journal Holocaust ‒ Studii şi cercetări, thereby creating a strong journal of international stature together with its accreditation in relevant international databases. The Institute will create its own web site.
The institute will organize regular conferences, seminars and roundtables with experts, opinion makers, scientific and cultural personalities in which it will disseminate the results of its educational and scientific activity.
D. Conservation programs of documentation and testimonial evidence
The Institute will initiate the creation, and work together with other interested institutions in the country and abroad to carry out a program aimed at digitizing all documents and testimonial evidence on the Holocaust in Romania and Northern Transylvania and seek national and international funding for this program. Digitized material will be made publicly available by publishing them on the internet.
9. Relations with other institutions in the field
The Institute for Holocaust and Genocide Studies will work with a number of institutions in the country and abroad, aiming at studying, researching and preserving the historical truth of the Holocaust and other genocides.
A. Institutions in the country:
B. Institutions abroad:
Cluj-Napoca, September 26, 2014
Dr. Zoltán TIBORI SZABÓ